Jute fiber is extracted from the stem of the plant grown as a cash crop in Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh and Tripura. Jute mills form an important industry here. The Jute industry occupies significant place in the Indian economy. The Indian Jute Industry is a very old & predominant in the eastern part of India. The Government of India has included the Jute Industry for special attention in its National Common Minimum Programme. It forms an integral part of the Indian Textile Industry. Further, the Jute industry contributes to the national exchequer from exports & taxes. From 17th to 20th century, the jute industry in India was delegated by the British East India Company which was the first jute trader. In the year 1880, jute industry has acquired almost the whole of Dundee (United Kingdom) and Calcutta. Then later in 19th century, the manufacturing of jute was started in other countries also like in France, America, Italy, Austria, Russia, Belgium and Germany. During 20th century, Margaret Donnelly I, a mill landowner in Dundee first set up the jute mill in India. In 1869, five mills were established with around 950 looms, the growth was very much fast that by the year 1910, 38 companies were operating around 30,685 looms, rendering more than a billion yards of cloth and over 450 million bags. Most of the Jute barons had started to quit India, leaving the setup of jute mills after Independence. Most of them were taken up by Marwari businessmen.
Jute fiber has the tendency to transform into awe inspiring artefacts and handicrafts. Jute Crafts(or jute handicrafts) made from jute are appealing and just perfect to adorn the favourite nook of your home, offices, restaurants, hotels, and more. A comprehensive assortment of utility based handicrafts articles are made from jute that not only augments the household but also find extensive usage. The handmade jute crafts are attractive and available in a wide range of colors, designs, shapes, and sizes.
- The fibres are first extracted by retting. The retting process consists of bundling jute stems together and immersing them in low, running water.
There are two types of retting: stem and ribbon.
- After the retting process, stripping begins. Women and children usually do this job. In the stripping process, non-fibrous matter is scraped off, then the workers dig in and grab the fibres from within the jute stem.
- This is a traditional process and is commonly used. The jute threads are gathered together and tied at a point. The threads are divided into 3 parts and braided by twisting one on top of other.
- Jute cloth is bought from the market. The cloth is cut according to the required pattern and then the pieces are stitched together on the sewing machine to come up with various products such as bags.
- This is a process of creating fabric from yarn, thread, or other material strands using a crochet hook. The word is derived from the French word “crochet”, meaning hook. Hooks can be made of materials such as metals, woods or plastic and are commercially manufactured as well as produced by artisans. Crocheting, like knitting, consists of pulling loops through other loops, but additionally incorporates wrapping the working material around the hook one or more times. Crochet differs from knitting in that only one stitch is active at one time
- Jute cloth is cut and various embellishment materials are stuck onto the same to create jewellery.
A range of products are handmade, using very simple tools, by braiding the fibres and assembling the braids into a variety of configurations resulting in bags, coasters, shoes and other utility items.