Origin: Needless to say that metal-craft is the base metal which was obtained from the mineral form – it developed there first. In this case, unorganized Bihar has been a stronghold of mineral deposits. Iron ore was the most here, due to which the method of making iron was developed in Bihar. This is followed by tin, aluminum and copper. In a way, with the refinement of these metals, the ground-work of science started with the basis of the scientific method. Iron instruments became the first – connected to agriculture. Earlier, hunting equipment were stone pellets. After these two, essential items of daily use began. Thus, among the tribes of Bihar, the development of rubbing, beating, casting of metals was earlier known as Dhokra-vidhi. The first form of this method is to heat metals and beat them. Along with this came the era of mixed metals.
Development of metal craft: The ancient rich tradition of metal sculpture in Bihar dates back to the BC era. Specimens obtained from Mohenjodaro are also from this period. So the basis of metal-craft in Bihar is ‘KasyaShilp’ (Bronze Skill). Evidence of excellent knowledge of the craftsmen is found in this craft. The use of the “final wax method” is widely found in the manufacture of metal crafts everywhere in Bihar. In this method the prepared soil model is first plated with a layer of wax. These layers are then re-plated with soil or other mixtures. After drying, it has been possible to manufacture idol crafts by pouring molten metal from this mold. This method has been used for both hollow and solid metal crafts. Another is “repose method”. The shape is raised by pressing lightly on top of the metal plate made before it.
The metal used in the craft is a mixture of gold, silver, bronze, brass, zinc, ashtadhatu, and mixed with panchaluh, ashtadhatu, gold, silver, iron, tin, glass, mercury, copper, and zinc. Gold, silver, copper, brass and glass in Panch iron can give prominence to the Nalanda metal craft from Bihar, in which statues of Buddha were made, which mark the Jataka tales.
It is recognized that at the heart of the development of metal crafts in Bihar is the notion of sustainability in art. For this, geometric parameters evolved in metal craft. First made tools of daily use and then idols of deities with the spirit of worship.
Product and Market:Rigidity of Metals – Craftsmen of India are skilled in manufacturing seat metal for designing. Hammers are designed. Vansal, vota, thali, table top, box umbrella are being made in Gujarat. Especially in the field of artificial wood paste. The reeds are pressed and imported from China. In Gujarat, silken layers of beautiful wood are affixed to Gujarati.Due to such Picas Sides, the timber industry in India has been rocked. Tablets, containers, etc. are reaching across India by hundreds of trucks. It is also protecting the environment from not harvesting forests. All this can be done by metal-seals.. Metal craft artisans can get industry status. With this indigenous effort, companies are doing it.The specialty of the metal is that it can be decorated from the outside – like a stone craft, it does not need to be engraved.Similarly, mold can also be made from metal, before which wax and clay had to be used.Graphic nature images can be etched on the metal by kaftgari method. Such pictography on black wolves is very attractive. Its craftsmen are available in Bihar’s Purnia.Lost wax casting method is the best in India, because of this, a craftsmanship of making sculptures can be developed in India. Which is the rite of home. Like Buxar, Mathura, Murshidabad, Bihar can also be a better center for bronze-casting in the field of metal-craft.