History: The contribution of Bihar in the terracotta crafts is the oldest. No definite date of its origin can be stated. Even before the Vedic era, terracotta crafts were prevalent in Bihar. Looking at the terracotta figures of human animals derived from excavations in Vaishali and other parts of the state, it is known that in the prehistoric era man began to construct terracotta sculptures to reveal his interests and aspirations.Terracotta art developed in the Vedic era. It is mentioned in the Mahabharata that Eklavya made a statue of his imaginary Guru Dronacharya. How ancient is the Mrumurti tradition. It can also be understood from this story-reference.
Eminent art scholar StrellaBremmaris has prescribed two categories of terracotta crafts. The first of these is a timeless craft. In this, the death, whose form we can call primitive or primitive. Specimens of terracotta craft have been made since the earliest periods of human civilization. Many traditions are embedded in it. Although popularly, the philosophy of this category of crafts is not in the outdoor environment or market.But in the rural environment of Bihar, many of its dimensions still exist as traditional symbols. The second category of clay craft features styles, materials and techniques of different ages. These reflect a steady stream of development. This includes Maurya, Sung, Kushan, Gupta, Pal and Mughal era Mritmurti in Bihar. They can be divided into the following categories.
Making Process: Creating terracotta characters or sculptures is a laborious entrepreneurship. First, dry and soft soil is taken from a particular place. It is then crushed and mixed with cotton, paddy straw or jute and moistened with water. It is then stitched with hands or feet. This process is called making Pindaya Lund. These pindya cocks are covered with wet sacks.These bodies are used with the help of hands or chalk to make an idol. When a sculptor sits on the chalk with clay and shakes the chalk with the help of a stick, his fingers automatically begin to move around his brain and brain. Gradually his creation breaks.
The idol is then kept in sunlight or shade for a few days. After a little drying, the idol is given the desired shape with the help of a pointed tool or tapu. During this time, the artist makes full use of his aesthetic vision and imaginativeness, as after the statue is cooked, there is no change.The idol is then cooked in a furnace. The ripe or thin color of the idols is quite adorable. Some idols are painted with different colors after cooking in fire. Gondha is usually treated with red, blue, yellow, black, green and orange colors. Some artists have also started using spray paint.
Product Development: When excavated at any ancient site, pottery or toys are most commonly found there. Different eras had different types of utensils or toys. With the help of the same utensil or toy, we also get an idea of the date of that period. Terracotta figures found in excavations in India suggest that humans began swelling of terracotta art in the prehistoric era in Bihar.But the terracotta of that period has undeveloped color visions. Naturally there was a complete lack of standardization in that period. The terracotta of Vedic period derived from excavations of Vaishali, Chirand (Saran), Tardih (Gaya) and Oriyaap (Bhagalpur) also do not show much development in terms of material and technique.