Wood Art and Craft is another most important handicraft or art form which is popular in the state of Bihar. This type of art is originated from the earlier centuries which are worth watching while on tour to this state. During the reign of Emperor Ashoka, beautiful royal throne, royal gates or panels of doors and temples were constructed by artists of wood art of Bihar. The area of Gaya city is important among the main centers of wood art in Bihar. Presently, craftsmen are located in three units (Gaya, Bodh Gaya and Khukhari villages) in Gaya district. The craftsmen mostly sculpt the Buddha and the craftsman is completely dependent on pilgrims and tourists (China, Nepal, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, and Europe). Most craftsmen sell their products only to retailers in the local market of Bodh Gaya. Craftsmen are not directly connected with customers due to lack of language knowledge and poor economic condition.
The wooden handicraft is again broadly Divide dint to here main sub-groups, they are the wood tuned showpieces, plain beautiful wood carvings, and the marvelously painted wooden carvings. In one group of the artisans paint the wooden toys, they also paint the chariot and the small idols of their deities as a sign of decoration. Usually, to paint the different light wood they mostly prefer using the vivid colors that are extracted from mineral and vegetable. This kind of art is mainly practiced by craftsperson that belongs to the caste of a carpenter.
For wood art and craft, the carpenters do not use any kind of complicated tools, but they mainly use the simple one. In Wood carving craft the artisans requires different sizes of FIRMER CHISEL, HAMMER HAND SAW and other tools. First the design are decide by Craft persons and then draw the line on the wood with the help of v knife. After that goes for cutting and carving.There are handful machines used by woodcarving units, like sander grinder, lathe machine and drill machine. All these are used by the craftsmen who making temple only. Those who carve Buddha idol they usually do not use this kind of machine, because it need specialize machine for carving which is costly.
After cutting the design into the wood, use the skew to cut wood away from the perimeter of the drawings. Chip and cut as much wood away from the drawing as possible to create small channels around the design. Pick up the gouge and continue cutting wood away from the design; the gouge removes wood fast, so be careful. After using the gouge for a while, pick up the bent spoon. Use it to dig into the wood and then pry upward. The bent spoon cuts roundish semi-circles out, and gives the wood that traditional, scooped look you see on almost all carvings. Begin using the chisels to cut and detail fine edges on the carving. When the carving begins to emerge sufficiently, switch back and forth between all the tools until finished. Use the files to delicately shape and smooth sharp points and edges. From the carvings of the wood, the artisans create various different types of beautiful motifs including the stylized birds, animals, and human beings.
The main raw material used in the art and craft is Gambhar wood. The Gambhar wood is bought from Gaya’s only local market. In the Gaya region Gambhar wood has become so much in demand that the resource has become panic and local supply of Gambhar wood does not fully meet the raw material demand. Gambhar wood is brought from Shiliguri (west Bengal) and Assam to meet the excess raw material needs.